ch.6 muscles

Question Answer
the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. excitability
the ability to be stretched. extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched. elasticity
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath. epimysium
another connective tissue located outside the epimysium fascia
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi (fascicle), which are surrounded by loose connective tissue called perimysium. perimysium
the fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells fibers
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath. endomysium
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. myofibrils
thin myofilaments. they resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together. actin myofilaments
thick myofilaments. they resemble bundles of minute golf clubs myosin myofilaments
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units sarcomeres
the basic structural and functional unity of the muscle. sarcomere
the charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
the brief reversal back of the charge action potential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
axons enter the muscles and branch. each branch that connects to the muscle neuromusclular junction
near the center of the cell synapse
a single motor neuron and all skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
the enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
the space between and presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle of fiber of enlarged nerve terminal postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal synaptic vesicles
a neurotransmitter acetylcholine
the primary cholinesterase in the body acetylcholinesterase
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level threshold
the muscle fiber will contract maximally, phenomenon all-or-none response
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
the time of contraction contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
the increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
when a rest they can't stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic respiration
a amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process isometric
the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue slow-twitch fibers
head is the most stationary end of the muscle origin
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movement synergists
muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
cover the frontal bone frontalis
fibers that run in circles around the eyes orbicularis oculi
extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheekbone zygomaticus
muscle runs horizontally across the cheek and inserts onto the orbicularis oris buccinator
the circular muscle of the lips orbicularis oris
described with facial muscles chewing muscles
covers the angle of the lower jaw masseter
fan-shaped muscle overlying the temporal bone temporalis
single sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck platysma
The deltoid muscle is a rounded, triangular muscle located on the uppermost part of the arm and the top of the shoulder. deltoid
a thick chest bone pectoralis major
two headed muscle that lies on the upper part of the arm biceps brachii
is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint brachialis
a muscle of the forearm that flexes the forearm at the elbow brachioradialis
is a paired muscle running vertically on each side of the anterior wall of the human body rectus abdominis
is a muscle layer of the anterior and lateral abdominal wall which is deep to the internal oblique muscle. transversus abdominis
is the largest and the most superficial of the three flat muscles of the lateral anterior abdomen external oblique
muscles are two large, flat muscles that cover the lower back latissimus dorsi
most superficial muscles of the posterior neck and upper trunk trapezius
muscles are paired muscles deep to the external obliques internal oblique
superficial muscle of the hip that forms most of the flesh of the buttock gluteus maximus
contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity four major functional characteristics
muscle tissue in which the contractile fibrils are not highly ordered, occurring in the gut and other internal organs and not under voluntary control. smooth muscle
is an involuntary, striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium cardiac muscle

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