Med Term 10

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Stereotactic radiosurgeryGamma knife Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain.Fixed on skull, guides insertion of needle 3-dimensionallyGamma knife: High energy radiation beam used to treat deep brain tumors, and Arteriovenious malformations (abnormal blo
Proton stereotactic radiosurgery (PSRS) Delivers a uniform dose of proton radiation to target, spares surrounding tissue.
Lumbar puncture (LP) CSF is withdrawn by a hollow needle from between two lumbar vertebrae below nervous tissue and spinal column for analysis and Relief of brain pressure.Informal name= spinal tapSome experience headaches. Injection of intrathecal medicines and A devic
Electroencephalography Recording of electrical activity of brainDemonstrates seizure activity from brain tumors, diseases, injuries to brain.Helps diffuse cortical dysfunction (encephalopathies)
Doppler ultrasound studies Sound waves detect blood flow in carotid and intracranial arteries.Detects occlusion in blood vesselsCarotid artery- carries blood to brain
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)PET/CT scanners Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells.Combined PET-CT scanners: pinpoint abnormal metabolic activity in brainDetects malignancy, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, Schizophrenia, epilepsy.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord. (May use contrast)Views brain damage from infection, tumors, inflammation, stroke diagnosis, headaches, bleeding problems, head injuries.
Magnetic Resonance angiography (MRA) Produces images of blood vessels using magnetic resonance techniques.2
Computed tomography of the brain Computerized x-ray techniques that generate multiple images of the brain and spinal cord, with injection of contrast which leaks through blood-brain barrier from blood vessels into brain tissue. Shows tumors, aneurysms, bleeding brain injury, skull frac
Cerebral angiography X-ray imaging of arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material into femoral artery (thigh).Diagnoses vascular disease (aneurysm, occlusion, hemorrhage) in brain.
Cerebral spinal fluid analysis Samples of CSF are examined.Measures protein, glucose, RBC and WBC, other chemical contents of CSF. Can also detect tumor cells, bacteria, viruses, infection, multiple sclerosis
Cerebell/o CerebellumCerebellar
Acetylcholine Internal chemical activates cell membranes of nerve cells, resulting in electrical discharges of these cells. Neurotransmitter chemical released at ends of nerve cells.
Spinal/ cranial nerves are (functions) Voluntary mainly; involved with sensations of smell, taste, sight, hearing, and muscle movements.Cranial nerves carry messages to/ from the brain to all parts of head, neck and (vagus nerve) to other parts of body. 12 pairs of nerves.
Circulation of CSF in brain and around spinal cord Formed within ventricles, circulates between membranes around brain and within spinal cord. It empties into bloodstream through membranes surrounding brain and spinal cord.
Left brainRight brain Left brain: more concerned with language, math, reasoning, analytical thinking.Right brain: spatial relationships, art, music, emotions, intuition
Cerebral hemispheres Division of brain into right and left halves. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, occupital, temporal, plus but gyri and sulci.
Glial cells are the: Stromal tissue of the CNS: Supportive, connective, framework.
Nerve Macroscopic, seen with naked eye. Consists of a bundle of dendrites and axons that travel together like strands of a rope.
Types of gliomas 1. Astrocytoma.Glioblastoma multiforme- most malignant form of astrocytoma.2. Oligodendroglioma.3. Ependymoma
Occlusion Blockage
Ictal event Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with epileptic seizure convulsions.
Embolus Clot of material that travels through bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
Dopamine CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Dementia Mental decline/ deterioration
Aura Symptom or sensation occurring before onset (prodromal) of a migraine attack or epileptic seizure.
Astrocytoma Malignant tumor of astrocytes (Glial brain cells).
Aneurysm Enlarged, weakened area in arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and stroke.
Absence seizures Form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings.
Syncop/o To cut off, cut short.Syncopal- Pertaining to fainting.Syncope: fainting, sudden and temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate flow of blood to the brain.
Tax/oAtaxia Order/ coordinationAtaxia: Condition of decreased coordination. Persistent unsteadiness on the feet can be caused by a disorder involving the cerebellum.
Hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation of fluid (CSF) in the brain.Fluid accumulates in ventricles when circulation of CSF is impaired in brain or spinal cord. A catheter is placed from brain ventricle into peritoneal space or right atrium of heart to drain CSF contin
Meningcele Meninges protrude to the outside of the body in spina bifida cystica. External sac protrudes, contains meninges and CSF.
Myelomeningcele Spinal cord and meninges protrude in spina bifida cystica, external sac contains CSF. Often associated with hydrocephalus and paralysis.
Spina BifidaTested by Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by impaired union of vertebrae parts (neural tube defect).Tested by alpa-feto protein marker.Etiology unknown- originates early in pregnancy.
Spina bifida occulta Spina bifida occulta: Vertebral defect covered over with skin, evident on x-ray, other. Posterior vertebrae have not fused. No herniation of spinal cord or meniges.Visible signs on skin include a mole, dimple or patch of hair.
Spina bifida cystica Cyst-like protrusions. More Severe form.
Alzheimer disease ((AZ) Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia), personality changes, impairment of daily functioning.General loss of brain parenchyma; narrowed gyri, widened sulci. Worse after 70.Characteristic: Confusion, memory failu
Amyotrophine lateral sclerosis ((ALS) Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.S/S: Weakness, atrophy of muscles in hands, forearms, legs; difficulty swallowing, talking, dyspnea.Known as Lou Gehrig disease. Cure/ cause unknown
Herpes Zoster (shingles) Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves caused by an inflammation due to herpes Zoaster virus (chickenpox or varicella virus), following cranial or spinal nerves around trunk of body.
MeningitisCaused by Inflammation of meninges, leptomeningitis.Caused by bacteria (pyogenic meningitis) or viruses (aseptic or viral meningitis).S/S- Fever, headache, photophobia (sensitivity to light), stiff neck.Treatment: lumbar puncture examines CSF, antibiotics, an
Human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy (HIV) Brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS (encephalitis and dementia)
Alzheimer's Degeneration Atrophy of cerebral cortex, widening of cerebral sulci ( in frontal/ temporal regions mostly).Senile plaques: From degeneration of neurons. Can be caused by a mutation of chromosome 14Neurofibrillary tangles (bundles of fibrils in cytoplasm of a neuro
Transient ischemic attack Can occur with all types of strokes.Characterized by a limited time frame course of neurological deficits.
Tonic-clonic seizures (epilepsy).Aura Grandmal/ ictal seizure characterized by sudden loss of consciousness, falling down, then tonic contractions (stiffening of muscles) followed by clonic contractions: twitching/ jerking movements of limbs.Aura: peculiar sensation experienced before onset
Brain tumorCaused byS/S Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges.Most primary tumors arise from gliomas (Glial cells) or meningiomas which are benign, syrrounded by a capsule. Can cause compression, distortion. S/S: cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, including at optic nerve
Cerebral concussionNo ev.No lo. Type of traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head.Usually no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue; usually no loss of consciousness.Treatment: rest, avoiding demanding physical/ mental activities
Cerebral contusionCan be Associated withSub- and ep- Bruising of brain Tissue resulting from direct trauma to the head.Associated with skull fracture, edema, or increase in intracranial pressure.Subdural and epidural hematomas develop, leading to permanent brain injury with altered memory or speech, or
Absence seizuresPetit mal seizuresPostical events Absence seizures: Consist of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of a person's surroundings.Include petit mal seizures in childrenPostical events- neurological symptoms after seizures such as weakness.
Temporal lobe epilepsy Seizures begin in temporaly 67 lobe (on each side of brain near ears) of brain.
Complex partial seizure Complex= impaired consciousness (most common)Partial= not generalized. Seizures that cause patients to pause what they are doing, become confused, and have memory problems.
Huntington diseaseS/S Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.S/S: Personality changes, choreic (dance-like) movements (uncontrollable jerking of arms, legs, and facial grimacing).Loca
Multiple sclerosis (MS) Destructuon of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and it's replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue.Treated by cotisteroids, interferons, glatiramer. Often marked by periods of remission and relapse.A leading cause of neurologic disabi
3 types of strokes 1.Thrombotic: blood clot (thrombus) in arteries leading to brain, resulting in occlusion of vessel.2.Embolic: An embolus travels to cerebral arteries and occludes a small vessel. Occurs suddenly.3. Hemorrhagic: blood vessel breaks, bleeding occurs. Can
Small hemorrhages A type of hemorrhagic stroke in which body reabsorbs blood, patient recovers.
Hemorrhagic stroke 3rd type of stroke when a blood vessel breaks, bleeding occurs.Can be fatal; RESULTS FROM advancing age, atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, resulting in degeneration of cerebral blood vessels.
Thrombotic stroke treatment Stroke treatment Thrombotic: treated with antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy.Tissue plasmogin activator (tPA) is standard after onset of a stroke, or carotid endarterectomy (removal of plaque in affected artery) (antherosclerotic)
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Disruption in normal blood supply to brain, stroke. Known as cerebral infarction, the result of impaired oxygen supply to brain.Risks: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, heart disease, obesity, cocaine abuse, high cholesterol.
MigrainePro.S/SPossible cause Severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache.Prodromal symptoms: aura= temporary vocal and sensory disturbances, including flashes of light and xig zag lines.S/S: Photophobia (sensitivity to light), Phonophobia (sensitivity to sound).Believed to
DemyelinationPrevents Loss of myelin insulationPrevents the conduction of nerve impulses through the axon in MS. Causes parasthesias, muscle weakness, unsteady gait, paralysis, visual blurred/ double vision, speech disturbances in MS. (Destruction of myelin on axons of neuro
Epilepsy Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures (Abnormal, sudden discharges if electrical activity in brain). Brain disorder in which at least 2 or more seizures appear spontaneously, recurrently.S/S of underlying pathologic conditions in br
Myasthenia Gravis (MG)Antib. Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles, chronic.Antibodies block ability of acetylcholine to transmit nervous impulse from nerve to muscular wall. S/S: Ptosis, double vision (diplopia), facial weakness, respir
PalsyCerebral Palsy caused byBell Palsy Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function).Cerebral Palsy- partial paralysis, lack of muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen (hypoxia) or blood flow to cerebral during pregnancy or in prenatal period.Bell Palsy- paralysis on one si
Parkinson's disease Degeneration of neurons in basal ganglia, occurring later in life, leading to tremors in hands, arms, jaw, face, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement
S/S of Parkinson's diseaseCauseTreatment Bradykinesia (shuffling gait), stooped posture, muscle stiffness of limbs and trunk, pill rolling tremor of hands, mask-like lack of facial expression.Caused by deficiency of dopamine, a neurotransmitter made. By basal ganglia cells.Treatment: drugs t
Palliative Relieving symptoms but not curative
Tourette syndrome (Tourette's)Associated with Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements, uncontrollable vocal sounds, and inappropriate words.Associated with excess dopamine, hypersensitivity to dopamine.Treated with Haldol, antidepressants, mood stabilizers.
Tics Involuntary movements usually beginning with eyelid twitching and facial muscle twitching, verbal outbursts. OF a small group of muscles. Tourette syndrome characteristics.
StheniaSuffixNeurasthenia StrengthNeurasthenia: nervous exhaustion and fatigue, often following depression
PraxiaApraxia (motor)Suffix ActionApraxia: Movements and behavior are not purposeful. Motor apraxia: patients cannot use an object or perform a task. Not caused by motor weakness.
Epidural (caudal) anesthesiaSpinal anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is achieved by injecting a local anesthetic into subarachnoid space. Used in obstetrics.Patients may experiences of sensation and paralysis of feet, legs, abdomen
Lex/oDyslexia Word, phraseDyslexia: developmental reading disorder occurring when brain does not properly recognize, process, and interpret language.
LepsySuffixNarcolepsy SeizureNarcolepsy: Sudden, uncontrollable compulsion to sleep (narc/o = sleep, stupor). Amphetamines, stimulant drugs Prescribed
ParesisSuffix WeaknessHemiparesis: Affects either right or left sides/ halves of bodyParesis (as a condition) means partial paralysis or weakness of muscles
PhasiaSuffixAphasiaMotor aphasiaSensory aphasia SpeechAphasia: Difficulty with speechMotor aphasia: present when patient knows what they want to say but cannot say itSensory aphasia: Difficulty understanding language. May per ounce correctly but use words inappropiately.
PlegiaSuffix Paralysis: loss/ impairment of ability to move parts of body
Hemiplegia Hemiplegia: Affects right or left half of body; RESULTS FROM a stroke or other brain injury. Contralateral to the brain lesion because motor nerve fibers from right half of brain cross to Left side of body in the medulla oblongata
QuadriplegiaLevel Quadri=four. All four extremities are affected (paralyzed) injury is at cervical level of spinal cord.
ParaplegiaCaused by (2) Paralysis of both legs and the lower part of body caused by an injury or disease of the spinal cord or cauda equina.
Kines/o, kinesi/o, kinesia, kinesis, kinetic MovementHyperkinesis- in children- treated by. AMPHETAMINES (CNS stimulants) but mechanism of their action is not understood.
Dyskinesia Condition marked by involuntary, spasmodic movements. Tardive dyskinesia develops in people taking antipsychotic drugs for extended periods.
Paresthesia Par= abnormal. Paresthesias include tingling, burning, and pins and needles sensations.
HyperesthesiaHypesthesia Light touch with a pin may cause increased sensation.Hypesthesia: diminished sensitivity to pain
Esthesi/oEsthesiaAnesthesia, 2 types Anesthetics Feeling, nervous sensationAnesthesia: lack of normal sensation. 2 types of regional anesthesia: spinal and Epidural- caudal blocksAnesthetics: agents that reduce or eliminate sensation.
Comat/oComatoseSemicomatose Deep sleepComatose: state of unconsciousness from which patient cannot be aroused.Semicomatose: A stupor (unresponsiveness) from which patient can be aroused.
Irreversible coma Irreversible coma (brain death): complete unresponsivity to stimuli, no spontaneous breathing or movement, and a flat EEG tracing.
Caus/oCausalgia BurningCausalgia: intense burning pain following injury to a sensory nerve.
Cephalgia Headaches may result from vasodilation (widening) of blood vessels in tissues surrounding the brain or from tension in neck and scalp muscles
AlgiaTrigeminal neuralgia PainTrigeminal neuralgia involves flashes of pain radiating along the course of the trigeminal nerve.
2 types of neuropathies Polyneuropathies: affect many nerves.Mononeuropathies: affect individual nerves.
NeuropathiesAffect Diseases of peripheral nerves. They affect motor, sensory, and autonomic functions.
Alges/oAlgesiaHypalgesiaHyperalgesia Sensitivity to painHypalgesia- Diminished sensation to pain. ( o is dropped.)Hyperalgesia: increased sensivity to pain.
Vag/o Vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve).Cranial nerve has branches to the head and neck, as well as to the chest.
Thec/oIntrathecal injection Sheath (refers to the meninges)Intrathecal injection: how chemotherapeutic drugs can be delivered into the subarachnoid space.
Thalam/o Thalamus
Radicul/oRadiculopathy, common causeRadiculitis Nerve root ( of spinal nerves)Radiculopathy: sciatica is a radiculopathy affecting sciatic nerve root in the back. Common cause is a herniated disk, leads to pain, weakness or numbness down the leg.Radiculitis: RESULTS in pain & loss of function
Pont/o PonsCerebellopontine: ine= pertaining to.
Neur/o NerveNeuropathyPolyneuritis
Myel/oPoliomyelitis Spinal cord or bones/marrow in other contexts.Poliomyelitis: (gray matter). Viral disease affects gray matter of spinal cord, leading to paralysis of muscles that rely on the damaged neurons. Vaccines made polio uncommon.
My/o MuscleMyoneural
HematomasSubdural hematoma Subdural hematoma: RESULTS from tearing of veins between dura and arachnoid membranes. Result of blunt trauma, blows to head (boxers, elderly)
Epidural hematoma Epidural hematoma: occurs between skull and dura as the result of a ruptured meninges artery, often after a skull fracture
Intercerebral hematoma Intercerebral hematoma: caused by bleeding directly into brain tissue, as in uncontrolled hypertension.
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defect caused by failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. This abnormality occurs in infants born with spina bifida.
Mening/oMeningi/oMeningioma Membranes, meningesMeningioma= slowly growing benign tumorMeningeal
Lept/oLeptomeningeal Thin, slenderLeptomeningeal: pia and arachnoid membranes known as the leptomeningeal because of their thin, delicate structure.
Gli/oGlioblastomaGliomas Glial cellsGlioblastoma: A highly malignant tumor (blast= immature)Gliomas are tumors of glial (neuroglial) cells
Anencephaly A congenital brain malformation; not compatible with life and may be detected with amniocentesis or Ultrasonagraphy of the fetus.
Encephal/oEncephalopathy, Chronic traumatic BrainEncephalopathy: chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive degenerative disease associated with repetitive brain trauma (concussion)
Cerebr/oCortical CerebrumCortical: pertaining to the cortex or outer area of an organ
Dur/oSubdural hematoma Dura materSubdural hematoma: not a tumor but a collection of blood
Ventricles Spaces in middle of cerebrum, canals that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Fluid in ventricles that flows throughout brain and around spinal cord. Clear, colorless, contains lymphocytes, sugar, proteins
Thalamus Decides what is important and what isn't, selectively processing and relaying sensory unformation to cerebral cortex. Also maintains awareness and consciousness. Main relay center, conducts impulses between spinal cord and cerebrum.
Hypothalamus Regulates release of hormones from pituitary gland at base of brain. It integrates activities of sympathic and parasympathic nervous system. Beneath the thalamus. Controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pituitary gland secretions.
Sympathetic nervesA N that Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
Autonomic nervous system System of nerve fibers (peripheral nerves) carries impulses away from the CNS to glands, heart, blood vessels and involuntary muscles found in WALLS of tubes (such as intestines, hollow organs [stomach, bladder]).Nerves that control involuntary body fun
Cerebral componentsContains Cerebral cortex: Nerve cells that lie in sheets on surface of cerebrum. Contains centers for speech, vision, smell, movement, hearing, thoughts
Cerebrum components(2) Gyri: Folds of the sheets on surface of cerebrum (convolutions) (Nerve cells), produce a rounded ridge.Sulci: grooves that separate the gyri (fissures) on surface of cerebral cortex.
ReceptionReceptor Sense organs, externalReceptor: organ that receives a nervous stimuluIIi s and passes it on to different nerves. Skin, ears, eyes, tastebuds are all receptors.
Glial cell types Astrocytes ( astroglial cells) (astr/o = star). Star-like in appearance; transport water/ salts between capillaries and neurons
Glial cell types #2 Microgial cells: small phagocyte cells with many branching processes, which protect neurons in response to inflammation. Removes waste products from CNF.
Glial cell types #3 Oligodendroglial cells: few dendrites form the myelin sheath in the CNS (oligodendrocytes).
Glial cells # 4 type Ependymal cells: Line membranes within brain and spinal cord where CSF is produced and circulates.
Meninges 3 layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, protective.
Medulla oblongata centers 1 & 2 Respiratory center: Controls respiration muscles in response to chemicals or other stimuli.Cardiac center: Slows rapid heart rate
Medulla oblongata centers # 3 Vasomotor center: Affects (constricts, dilates) muscles in WALLS of blood vessels, influencing blood pressure.
Medulla oblongata In brainstem, connects spinal cord with rest of brain. Nerve tracts cross from right to left and left to right ( opposite sides of brain controlled by the other half of medulla oblongata ( right side of cerebral controls left side of body). Nerve fibers c
Glial (neuroglial) cellsDo not Stromal tissue of central nervous system which make up its supportive framework and help it ward off infection.They do not transmit impulses; more numerous than neurons and can reproduce.
Examples of glial cells Astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes
Cell body Contains the cell nucleus, part of a nerve cell
NeurotransmitterSti. Or Chemical substance, messenger released at end of nerve cell. Stimulates or inhibits another cell, including a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell such as acetylcholine, norepinephrine,dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, and endorphins.
Neuron An individual nerve cell, a microscopic structure that carries impulses throughout the body.They are the parenchyma cells if the nervous sysyem.
Cerebral cortex Outer region of cerebrum, contains g sheets of nerve cells, gray matter
Ganglia Small collections of nerve cell bodies outside brain and spinal cord in the peripheral nervous system.Ganglion? singular
Difference between afferent nerves and efferent nerves Afferent: sensory nerves, blue, carry messages toward brain and spinal cord from stimulus receptors (eye, ear, nose, skin.)
Difference between afferent and efferent nerves: Efferent: motor nerves, red, carry messages away from brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs, from CNS to organs that respond (e.g. muscles, nerves, glands).
Afferent neurons of spinal cordEfferent neurons of spinal cord Afferent neurons bring muscles from a sensory receptor (such as skin) into spinal cord.Efferent neurons carry impulses from spinal cord to effector organs (such as skeletal muscle).
Cerebrum Largest part of brain, responsible for thought, judgment, memory, association, and discrimination. Responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision speech, taste, hearing, thought, memory.
Cerebellum Posterior part of brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Central nervous system consists of: (CNS) Brain, spinal cord
Cauda equina Bundle of nerves below the end of the spinal cord
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) Protective barrier between blood and brain cells. Glial cells (astrocytes) regulate passage of potentially harmful substances from blood and nerve cells of brain.Blocks drug access to brain tissues, capillary walls, so chemotherapy in brain is difficult
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along nerve cell.Extends from cell body, carries the impulse away from the cell body. Can be covered with myelin (fatty tissue.)
Sciatic nerveSciatica Nerve beginning in the region of the hip. Extends from base of spine down the thigh, lower leg and foot.Sciatica: Pain or inflammation along course of the nerve.
Femoral nerve Lumbar nerve leading to/ away from thigh (femur).
How afferent and efferent nerves work Touching a hot stove causes temperature and pain receptors in skin to stimulate afferent nerves, which carry messages toward spinal cord and brain. Instantaneously, message is conveyed to efferent nerves in spinal cord, which activate voluntary muscles to
Spinal/ cranial nerves are composed of: Receptors: for senses, eyes, ears, olfactory, and touch ( skin sensation)Sensory (afferent) nerves- carry messages related to changes in environment toward spinal cord and brain.Motor (efferent) nerves- travel from spinal cord and brain to muscles, te
Vagus nerve Exception in peripheral nervous system which carries messages to and from the neck, chest, and abdomen (10th cranial nerve).Its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach.
2 divisions of nervous system Central nervous system (CNS)Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Nervous impulses Electrical discharges, traverse length of associated nerves.
Nerve cells Neurons, microscopic fibers
Terminal end fibers Pathway through which the nervous impulse passes through the axon to leave the cell.
Synapse- what occurs:Ve. SI e. Vesicles store neurotransmitters in the terminal end fibers of axons.Receptors on dendritesInactivators end neurotransmitter activity when finished their job.
Brainstem Posterior of brain that connects the cerebrum with spinal cord. Includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
Demyelination Loss of myelin insulating nerve fibers and is characteristic of multiple sclerosis, illness affecting CNS.
SynapseSp. Thr. Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells. Space through which a nervous impulse jumps from one neuron to another.
Stroma Connective and supporting tissue of an organ.Glial cells make up the stromal tissue of the brain
StimulusStimuliAg. Of Agent of change – (light, sound, touch, pressure, and pain) in an internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Spinal nerves 33 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system consists of:CS cranial nerves- carry impulses between brain and head and neck. Spinal nerves.Plexuses: large network of nerves such as cervical, bronchial, and lumbosacral peripheral nerves.
Pons Part of brain anterior to cerebellum and between medulla and rest of midbrain. Bridge connecting various parts of brain.
Plexus Plexuses: large interlacing network of nerves including lumbosacral, cervical, and bronchial.
Meninges layers # 1 Dura mater – thick, outermost, tough membrane layer of meninges surrounding and protecting brain/ spinal cord. Contains blood channels (dura sinuses).
Meninges layers # 2 Arachnoid membrane: spider-like membrane loosely attached to meninges by web-like fibers, creating space for CSF. Surrounds brain and spinal cord.
Meninges layers # 3 Pia mater: Thin, delicate inner membrane, connective tissue with rich supply of blood vessels.
Meninges spaces (2) Subdural space: below dural membrane.Subarachnoid space: space containing CSF
Peripheral nervous systemC, S, A Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
Parenchyma Essential distinguishing tissue of any organ system. Nervous system includes neurons, nerves carrying nervous impulses.
Parasympathetic nervesI, A Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of gastrointestinal tract.
Types of autonomic nerves # 1 Sympathetic: stimulate the body in stress/ crisis. Increase heart rate, forcwfukness, dilate airways so oxygen can enter, increase blood pressure. They also stimulate adrenal glands to secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), and inhibit intestinal contractions
Types of autonomic nerves # 2 Parasympathetic: involuntary, autonomic nerves. Balance the sympathetic nerves. They slow down heart rate, lower blood pressure, stimulate internal contractions to clear rectum.
Stimulus Begins an impulse in the branching fibers of a neuron (dendrites).
White matter in spinal cord Contains nerve fibers tracts with myelin sheath, outer region of spinal cord.
Gray matter of spinal cord Contains cell bodies and dendrites, inner region of spinal cord
Spinal cord Carries all nerves to and from limbs and lower part of body. It is the pathway for impulses going to and from the brain.Column of nervous tissue extending from medulla oblongata to second lumbar vertebra within column.
Oligodendroglial cells Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
NervesM F BC-l Macroscopic fiber bundles which carry electrical messages all over the body. Cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites).
Myelin sheathS, I a Surrounds and insulates the axon and speeds transmission of the electrical impulse of a nerve cell; covering of white, fatty tissue.Gives a white appearance to nerve fiber (White matter); parts of spinal cord, brain, and most peripheral nerves.
Gray matter Composed of cell bodies of neurons appearing gray because they are not covered in myelin sheath. (Brain, spinal cord).
Brain stem structures # 1(Structures in brain below cerebrum connect to spinal cord from cerebrum.) Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary movements and maintains balance and posture
Brainstem # 2Structures in brain below cerebrum connect to spinal cord from cerebrum. Midbrain: uppermost portion of brainstem. Contains pathways connecting cerebrum with lower parts of brain, and seeing/ hearing structures.
Brainstem # 3Structures in brain below cerebrum connect to spinal cord from cerebrum. Pons: bridge on brainstem, containing nerve fiber tracts that connect cerebellum with rest of brain, including facial/ eye nerves there
Brainstem # 4Structures in brain below cerebrum connect to spinal cord from cerebrum.Con. B, h, s Medulla oblongata: in brainstem, connects spinal cord with rest of brain. Controls breathing, heartbeat, size of blood vessels.
Corpus caollosum Lies in center of brain and connects two hemispheres of brain.
Cauda equina A fan of nerve fibers below the end of the spinal cord.
DendritesB F o a Branching fibers of the neuron, microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Circulates throughout brain and spinal cord.

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