poli sci exam 1

Question Answer
empirical question question of what is.. fact.. ex. donald trump is president
normative question what should be, value, ought.. patterns
are imperial and normative questions defended the same way? no
"it is too hot in here" empirical or normative empirical .. is fact to the person that said it.. different positions in the room etc.. we have different normative expectations of what a proper temperature should be
that did thomas hobbes say about humans, agriculture humans not good, humans similar wants and desires, look out for self=fraud and force, no room for agriculture with violence.. man solitary poor brutish. no transcendent ethics, culturally determined.. man= somewhat rational.. sov to enforce rules
what did thomas hobbes believe about government/sovereign need mechanism to tell us what is/ is not empirical.. sovereign has the right to take away property, liberty, life in order to bring order.. we need gov to protect us from ourselves, others, and to bring order
political philosophy is driven by 3 questions 1. is there a god? if so what is god like? 2. are there ethical absolutes-transcendent ethics? 3. what are humans like?
according to Hobbes what did government need to be as strong as leviathan.. great sea monster.. so much chaos.. gov needs lots of power.. leviathan is a good things
3 reasons often given for why we need government 1. to protect us from eachother and ourselves-stoplights.. info on candybars protect from self. 2. protect from outsiders.. expect sovereign to help.. trade/north korea. 3. provides goods/ services that individuals/markets can't provide
3 problems that having government & sovereign bring about 1. we may not all agree on purpose/goals of gov2. don't agree on meaning of goals and how to reflect them3. even if we agree on goals, what they mean, and how to accomplish,. we don't have same priorities (can do all bc limited resources
define politics authoritative resolution of conflict through allocation of values & resources
what does authoritative resolution NOT mean everyone is happy, the issue will never come up again, the sovereign has reached the technically or ethically best solution
what DOES authoritative resolution mean a decision has been made and it applies to all of us, may choose to exempt some of us. gov has the right to make use of public utilities, sovereign has the right to take away property, life, liberty when they see fit
what does allocation of resources mean and how is it important where we use our resources.. allocation of time/manpower.. we can make speeches but if we don't allocate resources it doesn't matter
what is NOT meant by allocation of values gov creates ethics and values
allocation of values means every decision sovereign makes is valuable.. value judgement.. most decisions gov makes are intended to impact values.. ex. public schools required to do community service projects.. presidents do things to set example.. cover graffiti
define government set of offices & roles that are established in society to make authoritative decisions
obligations of office holders decisions rest w/office not person. powers that go w/ certain offices and limits to that power
define roles expected and accepted patterns of behavior usually in forces informally
is there anything in the constitution about political parties? no
what does Reichley say about religion and politics intertwined on a common cultural basis
idealism goals of social group.. transcendent ethics apply to all people @ all times
monism reject material world for spiritual-how we find transcendent truths.. physical needs put aside
egoism reducing all value to appetites & drives-helps fulfill own desires- no over arching ethics – CJ
personalism individual experience.. don't need other christians.. values apply to all people at all times
authoritarianism group decided whats good for us- no transcendent ethics-ethics culturally determined
theist-humanism experiences of the individual & group-ethics found through both
civil humanism balance needs of group & individual-no transcendent ethics
what degree of institutional separation do separationists want strict
what degree of institutional separation do social activists want strict
what degree of institutional separation do accomodationists want moderate
what degree of institutional separation do interventionists want moderate
what do separationaists say about church role in public policy formation small
what do social activists say about church role in public policy formation large
what do accomodationists say about church role in public policy formation moderate
what do interventionists say about church role in public policy formation large
spearationists teach moral principals.. public figure out what to do with it (conservative protestants)
social activists tell gov what is ethical but priests don't run for office.. promote virtuous causes in public life
accomodationist symbolic presence not specific issues.. church can help in gov (priest can run for office), set moral direction (billy graham
interventionists leaders of church winning benefits for constituents from public power.. seeking power usually for a moral reason (civil rights-jesse jackosn, pat riley)
what led conservative protestants tp switch from interventionists to separationists? 1. explained by immigration 2. maybe churches can be bought .3 mainline denominations focusing on other churches 4. eschatology-study of end times
how does immigration explain why protestant interventionist changed to separationists more immigration of Roman Cathoilics, orthodox, more religions can't be interventionists without consensus
how does churches being bought explain why protestant interventionists switched to separationists . give money,, tax deductible.. no tax deduction = less giving.. can't use tax exempt $ for political gain. didn't want to put tax exemption at risk.. can use money for neutral voter registration
how does churches focusing on other churches explain why protestant interventionists switched to separationists worried about other churches.. stay out of politics, lost message
how does eschatology explain why protestant interventionists switched to separtationists 1. church has no reason to be in politics bc Christs rule is in the future 2. there is hope bc Christ rules now.. "going down the tube, christians need to get involved"
premillennialist 1000 yrs meant literally- Christ return inaugurate, kingdom from Jerusalem. ncrease of christianity in the future.. now world won't recognize Christ.. no reason for church to be involved in politics. job of church only to save people
postmillennialist not literal 1000 yrs- all authority on heaven and earth has been given to me.. after 1000 yrs- christ is ruling now.. increasingly world will turn to christ even politics
amillennialist now but attached to church
moral majority rate members of congress on morel issues.. did they vote for issue pf morality?-theological underpinnings
Dawson and christianity C impacts everything (not location).C opens door bc C is open. faith = spiritual freedom. ethics and encourages education understand scripture, empirical. close to C don't understand impact. amer foreign policy- freedom in the <3 of humans . difs between
Berman and Christianity western legal tradition. crisis-law&C. if C values can't be in legal system then games of law.Germanic tribes. structure of west legal system v. religious views. thinks Christianity has always been in law
Wallis & Civil Religion civil religion not gov mandating religion.normative-relationship religion & politics. using C to bless status quo bc "politics based on C values". politicians easy to manipulate.Clintons "new covenant"-morphed religious beliefs. careful to use C values in
ideology constrained consistent system of beliefs about how politics & economics work/what they should do
what is the dominant ideology of the west classical liberalism
6 tenets of classical liberalism 1. belief in individualism 2, belief in private property 3. society should be organized by contracts 4. belief in liberty/freedom: set goals/strive to reach them 5. belief in equality 6. belief in democraxy
what is the difference between classical liberalism& classical conservatism over the meaning/relative importance of the 6 tenants of classical liberalism. what do we mean by equality?
Adam smiths thoughts on gov & market(during 1st industrial rev) division of labor, focus on things that we are good @, better products/use of resources, trading for goods&service can't focus on everything, pursuing own interest by providing things others want, volun. exch. gov makes things worse off
adam smiths thoughts on humans not altruistic , looking out for ourselves, exchanges are better when voluntary
Herbert spencers view of gov survival of the fittest, gov shouldn't protect weak, hooked on gov hangouts, society drowning in debt. small gov
biblical support for smith and spencer creation- feed self in Genesis, work b4 fall, commandments-dont steal, private property, israel divided after being communal- gleaning laws, picking up left overs for poor, ethics laws not gov, poor still have to collect for themselves
biblical support for smith and spencer s-king like other nations that give power and prestige, ahab-wated namaths property, pays people to testify, land to king, m-lawful to do what i wish w/ my own things voluntary contract.t-id he doesn't work then he doesn't eat
how does smith define freedom freedom FROM gov
how does green divine freedom freedom (TO) (FOR) (BY) gov
What does Green say the rule of gov is through society we have our things, gov needs to step up make sure we are making a max contribution to society, men not in position to decide what is best, gov = welfare is taken care of, uphold contacts, providing freedom to the group
what does green think about humans men are not good, can be improved through gov,man not in position to decide what is best
what type of government does Galbraith want really involved gov w/ countervailing power (unions, worker safety laws)
why does Galbraith think that bargaining cannot work and what is his solution because big companies take advantage, gov needs countervailing power.. min wage, safe conditions, etc. businesses have to let unions exist. Gov creates competition to break up power
what 2 things does Galbraith say indicates that smiths free trade doesn't work (invisible hand)? rise of large scale institutions(monopolies.. imperfect competition) & the great depression
microeconomics specific business or sectre
macroeconomics country as a whole, national
How does Keynes economics work? demand goes down, people get fired, no buyer power, depression.. demand goes back up bc gov fixed the problem..then prices go up.. inflation.
why does depression happen demand was too low
why is inflation bad can't plan for future, inflation hits people w. fixed income
in Kenyen economics what drives the economy consumer demand.. > gov regulation
do conservatives like fiscal policy no
do conservatives like monetary policy no
do liberals like fiscal policy yes
do liberals like monetary policy yes
fiscal policy gov taxing/spending power to influence demand.. running a deficit
monetary policy 1, banks must have certain % of money on hand (reserve rate).2. federal funds rate-banks don't have enough money on hand. 3. quantifying easing-feds buy risky bonds.. economy controlled by banks
how does the amount of money on hand affect demand move reserve rate for economic goals.. drive up interest rates =people don't make purchases, banks font have as much money to lend.. more $ on hand encourage people to by-drive demand up
how does federal funds rate affect demand high bank interest rate – people but less.. negative interest rates pay to keep money in the bank
do conservatives like quantifying easing no
what is quantifying easing feds buy risky bonds that company may not pay back.. ask for a higher interest rate. fed makes up this $.. fed buys 8 mill a month
what is a neutral/flat tax everyone pays the same % in taxes -pa income tax, local income tax in pa, social security
regressive tax the more you make the lower % of income you pay in taxes or fixed monetary rate. critics argue social security si regressive. pay one tax on money up to $115,000 and after that pay a lower tax
progressive tax more you make, higher % you pay in taxes. fed gov & many state income taxes
effective tax rate % of income we actually pay in taxes
marginal tax rate % you earn on highest dollar of income
what tax structure do liberals like progressive.. gov can solve problems through gov programs
why do liberals like a progressive tax structure 1-4 1. shouldn't people that make more pay more 2. shouldn't people with a bigger steak in system pay more to preserve system 3, only way to get money to fund.. tax the richest people. 4.marginal tax breaks.. save tax dollars at highest marginal rate
why do liberals like a progressive tax structure 5 works automatically.. food stamps, welfare, automatically, unemployment.. spending goes up for gov programs.. economy adjusted by automatic stabilizers.. solve problems through gov plans of action
who wants demand-side ecomomics green & galbraith
what do people that want demand-side economics want tax cuts for the working class
what do conservatives think about progressive tax structure sometimes has social implications like if2 people get married and their combined income puts them in a higher tax bracket.. does bad things to social institutions like marriage.-gov activity messing up society
in Keyensian economics what would you do to when there is 12% unemployment lower taxes
in Keyensian economics what would you do when there is 18% inflation raise taxes to decrease spending
what happens in Keyensian 18% inflation and 12% unemployment under keyensian economics this should not happen
what type of economics do conservatives endorse supply side economics
what do conservatives say is the solution for stagnation invest money that leads to more jobs.. need rich people to spend and invest
what do conservatives want to do to taxes cut taxes for anyone .. invest money to lead to more jobs.. reduce number of tax brackets
what tax systems do conservatives like flat tax system
what do conservatives claim government programs do? provides a disincentives to work
what bad things does gov do according to conservatives gov regulation pushes up price of project
what is capital gains tax the profit you make on an investment you hold for a long time (year)
how do liberals say capital gains should be taxes at a very high rate.. capital gains are unearned income
how do conservatives say capital gains should be taxed no tax or low tax, encourage people to invest money
what do liberals say about taxing inheritance tax at really high rates- to distribute and pay for gov programs
what do conservatives say about taking inheritance no tax bc already taxed when it was made… why are we taking death when we tax everything else?
why do debates between liberals and conservatives happen debates/diffs arise out of worldview/ ideological differences
biblical support for keyens & galbraith gleaning laws-gov had to make them do it, society wide care for the poor, all responsible for the poor. jubilee laws-every 50 yrs land bought had to be returned to the family. deter- every 3 yrs being food so fatherless/widows. instead of food-food stamps
bibical support for keens & galbraith in psalms "gods"-earthy rulers- gobs job to defend, care for, the poor and oppressed. make sure they are not abused by big institutions
Stephen Monsmas critique about liberalism libs assume gov is good, they underestimate the ease of solving problems.. confuse the ides of charity and justice-justice help those that deserve it.
Biblical starting points (Genesis 1:1/Colossians 1:15-17 )- how does this differ from hobbes Gen-scripture asserts that there is a god and he creates.. Col-assertion of creation day, Christ's role- throwns, powers, authorities, possibly be human gov.. Hobbes says gov came about bc people couldn't get along
Biblical starting points (Genesis 2) humans created in the image of God, humans rational beings, can make moral judgments, humans created as sub creators, called stewards, do what God commands & avoid what God forbids, humans created as social beings. (packer)
Biblical starting points (Genesis 3) image marred by sin, struggle to be stewards and sub creators.. how time figuring out how to live with one another.. implications for gov & politics
God responds in 4 ways to help us after the fall (1-2) 1. sends christ as mediator-provides righteousness, pay for sins, so that we can be reconciled to God. 2. provides scripture – points us to Christ. points out Gods truth that we suppress. so we know God's standards
God responds in 4 ways to help us after the fall (2-4) 3. sends Holy Spirit to regenerate us/enable us to believe in Christ/renew image of God in us 4. provides a series of institutions to bring order to society in the force of chaos/evil l and to that which we are not suppose to do ourselves
Where does gov start in the Bible? Genesis but we are not told how
How to figure out how to apply scripture to our lives? 1. is this passage intended to be an indicative (something happened) or imperative (do this)? 2. How do these apply post Christ?
Exodus 18 Moses going to wear himself out. father in law (jethro) tells him to put people in charge (message from God). capable honest men based on character not education, teach people Gods decrees and instructions.. teach people under him how to govern
what is federalism power plot into levels state gov, federal gov,
Deuteronomy 17-14:20 Qualifications of rulers- don't collect too much gold/silver/horses (military) bc will rely on this more than God appoint king God chooses..character is #1 thing. write a copy of law and read it daily.
why did the people of Israel need to know the qualifications of Kings? hold kind accountable. to have say in choosing a king
how do we debate? (empirical & normative) we debate empirically about "what is" based on out normative presuppositions of what should be
what does hobbes say about ethical absolutes none sovereign must decide these
what do liberals say humans are like inherently bad but improvable through government programs
what do conservatives say humans are like inherently bad but improvable, don't need gov
when did hobbes live and where did he live 17th century england
what is the sovereign and what is his rule ruling civil magistrate.. has the power to take away life, liberty, and happiness, brings order to society, protects us from ourselves and others
when did Richley write 1985
why did they separationist, interventionist, social activist, and accomodationist views come about? because people didn't agree on the churches rule in politics
what value systems have transcendent ethics idealism, personalism, theist-humanism
what value systems do not have transcendent ethics egosim, authoritariansm, and civil humanism
which value system are about the individual egoism & personalism
which value systems are about the group authoritarianism & idealism
what does riechly say is the explanation of our existance religion
when did Dawson write? 1950 AD
why did western societies develop differently from other countries? influenced by christianity, allows for change, missionary emphasis, encourages reading and education to understand scripture, don't see link between society & religion bc bc we have specialized fields.. can't see big picture bc so much info
when were religious views developed in the west according to dawson during the dark ages
when were the dark ages and what did they lay the foundation for 1000-1500 AD.. church development & renaissance and reformation
when did Berman write 1985
what does Berman say lead to fragmentation and disunity dualism.. separation between law & religion (christianity)
what is the crisis of western legal tradition according to Berman (1-5) 1. take religion out of legal system 2. loses values 3. left w. only structural & legal formalisms 4. inability to resolve crucial conflicts 5. rules w/o values will not lead us to true justice
according to wallis how does civil religion hurt christianity anything our nation does is christian bc by definition we are christian.. rely on actions of gov to guide our morals and values.. weakens our faith.. political figures manipulate C.. tries to christianize social laws instead of taking laws from C
what was wallis's for of eschatology and how does that enforce his stance he was a premillenialist – wasn't hopeful christ would be in gov reforming it so church has to step up and define religion and not let politics do that
when did wallis write 1984
when did adam smith write and what was happening at that time 1776- england highly dominant, hight of 1st industrial revolution, moving toward industrialization and urbanization, the time of american rev, steam power, and declaration of independence
how is economic efficiency obtained according to smith the invisible hand that drives economy, supply & demand, specialization, division of labor
how does the invisible hand govern society according to smith? humans are selfish and get as much of what they want as they can, specialization bc people do what they are best at, don't waste time by focusing on 1 thing, certain goals everyone wants, voluntary decisions by people not sovereign
what does smith think the role of gov should be should protect and enforce contracts but not provide goods and services bc it will be up societies natural free trade
what does smith think will happen if gov enforces traded and barter result in waste of resources, miss op distribution of optimal goods & services, will use resources for soveirgns good, must assume sovereign knows better than us, gov takes productive resources via tax and uses them for unproductive things
when did herbert spencer write & what was going on late 1800s, darwin era, civil war, 2nd industrial rev, karl marx, urbanization
what did spencer believe was the rule of gov… protection/ defend/ enforce contracts.. not restrictions on commerce, welfare, education
II thesolonians 3:10 "if a man will not work, he shall not eat"
exodus 20 10 commandments 1. no other gods before me 2. no idols 3. don't misuse the name of the lord 4. remember sabbath and keep it holy 5. bonor mother and father 6.no murder 7. no adultery 8. no stealing 9.no false testimony 10.do not covet neighbors stuff
Leviticus 19 gleaning laws- leave the edges of fields untouched, do not pic grapes off of the ground.. commanded by the lord, dont show partiality to poor or favoritism to great. punishment for sleeping with a female slave that is promised to another man
deuteronomy 24 of you miss a sheaf in the field don't go back over it. when you beat branches for olives don't do it a 2nd time, leave what remains for the foreigner, the fatherless, and the widow
how were leviticus 19 & deuteronomy 24 support for smith & spencer poor can eat after harvest.. gov didn't provide welfare
Ruth 4 Naomi sell land that belonged to Boaz relative .. day sell land acquire Ruth the Moabite, to maintain name with land.. for transfer of property one party took off sandal and gave it to the other
I samuel 10 israel asks for a king to give power and prestige like other nations.(displeases samuel) god warns against it .. king will make them plow his ground.. will take best fields and give to attendants .. take grain & flocks too.. they still wanted king
how does 1 samuel 10 apply to smith and spencer gov will squander nations wealth
1 kings 21 Ahab offered to buy Namoths vineyard but N said the lord forbids him to give away fams inheritance, Jezebal(wife) sent letters in As name to have N stoned to death.Atook vineyard. ahab humbled.. lord will not bring wrath on him but his sons
matthew 20 parable of workers, landowner hired people at diff times of the day but paid them all the same. people hired 1st were angry.. "don't i have the right to do what i want with my own money"
Stephen Monsmas critique of conservatism humans not good. people won't restrict self interest for c good, individuals can't make a dif (air pollution ex), approach probs with no guiding std. special interest. gov not only factor 4 freedom (Black worker). people vulnerable to public systems
how does matthew 20 apply to smith and spencer used contracts between land owners & has the right to do what he wants with his own property
when did stephen monsma write 1974
when did t.h. green write & what was happening at this time 1881, 2nd industial rev.. spencer was also writing
for smith & green where does property come from smith- labor, green gov
what did Reichly write the religious issue
what did dawson write the significance of western development
what did berman write the religious foundations of western law
what did wallis write civil religion
what did stephen monsma write american conservatism: an evaluation & american liberalism and evaluation
what did th green write liberal legislation & freedom of contract
what did james young write the politic of affluence.. reflect gailbraiths views
when did young (gailbraith) write 1968
what is the laffer curve supply side economics . no one will work with 100% taxes. no rev. if gov raises taxes won't get more money bc less people are willing to work
supply side view conservative, free market solutions
demand side view liberals, gov intervention, regulations
leviticus 25 jubilee laws.. 7 years between each harvest for 7 years. 50th year is sabbath yr.. debt forgiven, property returned to original fam, gov involved
how does levitvus 25 support green & gailbraith gov was involved to enforce jubilee.. breaking up wealth like progressive tax structure
how do leviticus 19 and deuteronomy 24 defend green & gailbraith gov enforced gleaning laws
deuteronomy 14:28 set aside tenth of all fields produce in a yr. at end of 3 yrs bring all tithes of that years producee and store it in towns so that foreigners, fatherless and widows can be satisfied and the Lord will bless you
psalm 82:1-4 defend weak, poor, needy.. show justice to all
stephen monsmas critique of liberalism underestimate probs, dont justify between charity & justice.. charity no good reason just nee, gov may not be trust worthy
romans 1:18-32 wrath of God against wicked, gods eternal power & divine nature have been clearly seen. people knew god but didn't glorify him & give him thanks.. worship created rather than creator.. POINTS OUT GODS TRUTH THAT WE SUPPRESS
romans 12 don't conform to this world but be transformed by the renewal of your mind.. dont take revenge.. repay evil with good. individuals & institutions have dif responsibilities
romans 13
exodus 1:15-21 king said kill baby boys- midwives didn't. said bc they feared god.. god gave them families of their own
exodus 22:28 dont blasphemiez god or ruler of people
II chronicles 19:4-7 jehosephat appointed judges- not judging for mortals but 4 god. no injustice, partiality and bribery
ezra 7:26 if you do not obey law to God or king = pushed by banishment, death, etc.
proverbs 8:15-16 king will give stability to country unless he can be bribed
ecclesiastes 8:2-5 obey king and no harm will come
Isaiah 10:1-2 shame on people that make unjust laws
daniel 2:19:21 daniel had vision. praise God . remove king from thrown, gives wisdom and knowledge
daniel 3 king nebuchadezzar set gold image told people to worship or burning fire.. shadrach, meshach, and abednego didn't. fire. saved by the Lord. soldiers were killed. no other god can save but this one
daniel 4:28-34 king N sai be built babylon for his own glory was taken away from people until his sanity was resorted when he looked to heaven
daniel 5: 18:31 king Ns son didn't learn drink wine out goblet from Gods temple
Daniel 6 Kind Darius passes a decree not to pray. daniel did 3 times a day. daniel goes to lions den.. survived by grace of God and men that accused him were eaten by lion.. daniel was blessed
when is it ok to disobey law 1. ethical duty to disobey when it causes us to sin 2. when law is sinful3. if law exceeds authority of gov 4. we can disobey laws of pagan ruler 5. can disobey any law we don't like
what are conservatives opposed/ believe in gov reg of economy, navy gov spending, and civil rights legislations.. b- gov hinders operation of market system, favors state over federal action, favors decreased gov spending
what do libs try to do change political, economic, or status quo to foster development and well being of individuals, want to change short comings of society through gov

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