vocab ch 3

Term Definition
cell theory one of the first unifying concepts developed in biology
cytoplasm jellylike substance that contains dissolved molecular building blocks such as- proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, and ions
organelle structures specialized to preform distinct processes within the cell
prokaryotic cell do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
eukaryotic cell have a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles
cytoskeleton a flexible network ofproteins that provide structural support for the cell
nucleus store for most of the DNA in your cells
endoplasmic reticulum interconnected network of thin folded membranes
ribosome tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins
Golgi apparatus closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
vesicle small membrane enclosed sacs that that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place- to -place within the cell
mitochondrion supply energy to the cell
vacuole fluid filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by the cell
lysosome membrane bound organelles that contain enzymes
centriole cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle
cell wall rigid layer of protection, support, and shape to the cell
chloroplast organelles that carry out photosynthesis
cell membrane forms a boundary between acell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials intoand out of a cell
phospholipid is a moleculecomposed of three basic parts: charged phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acid chains
fluid mosaic model describes thearrangement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
selective permeability cell membrane allowssome, but not all, materials to cross
receptor protein that detects a signal molecule and performs anaction in response
passive transport move-ment of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input from the cell
diffusion movement of molecules in a fluid or gas from a region ofhigher concentration to a region of lower concentration
concentration gradient thedifference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
osmosis water molecules move across a semipermeablemembrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lowerwater concentration
isotonic solution has a soluteconcentration equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
hypotonic solution has a solute concentration lower than the soluteconcentration inside a cell
hypertonic solution has a solute concentration higher than the solute concentration insidea cell
facilitated diffusion diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
active transport drivesmolecules across a membrane froma region of lower concentration to aregion of higher concentration
endocytosis process of taking liquids or fairlylarge molecules into a cell by engulfing them in a membrane
phagocytosis type of endocytosis in which thecell membrane engulfs large particles
exocytosis the releaseof substances out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane

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